class: center, middle #9 - PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT --- #PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team. The project team is comprised of the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project. Project team members may have varied skill sets, may be assigned full or part-time, and may be added or removed from the team as the project progresses. Project team members may also be referred to as the project’s staff. Although specific roles and responsibilities for the project team members are assigned, the involvement of all team members in project planning and decision making is beneficial. Participation of team members during planning adds their expertise to the process and strengthens their commitment to the project. #PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - 9.1 Plan Human Resource Management—The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan. - 9.2 Acquire Project Team—The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities. - 9.3 Develop Project Team—The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance. - 9.4 Manage Project Team—The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance. ??? These processes interact with each other and with processes in other Knowledge Areas as described in detail in Section 3 and Annex A1.As a result of these interactions additional planning may be required throughout the project. For example: - After initial team members create a work breakdown structure, additional team members may need to be added to the team. - As additional team members are added to the team, their experience levels, or lack thereof, could decrease or increase project risk, creating the need for additional risk planning. - When activity durations are estimated, budgeted, scoped, or planned prior to identifying all project team members and their competency levels, the activity durations may change. The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing the various project phases. This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team. For smaller projects, project phases. This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team. For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities may be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager. The project sponsor works with the project management team, typically assisting with matters such as project funding, clarifying scope, monitoring progress, and influencing stakeholders in both the requesting and performing organization for the project benefit.This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team. For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities may be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager. The project sponsor works with the project management team, typically assisting with matters such as project funding, clarifying scope, monitoring progress, and influencing stakeholders in both the requesting and performing organization for the project benefit. Managing and leading the project team includes, but is not limited to: - Influencing the project team. The project manager needs to be aware of and influence, when possible, human resource factors that may impact the project. These factors includes team environment, geographical locations of team members, communications among stakeholders, internal and external politics, cultural issues, organizational uniqueness, and others factors that may alter project performance. - Professional and ethical behavior. The project management team should be aware of, subscribe to, and ensure that all team members follow professional and ethical behavior. --- #9.1 Plan Human Resource Management Plan Human Resource Management is the process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan. The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-2. Figure 9-3 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. --- #9.1 Plan Human Resource Management ##Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Activity resource requirements .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets --- ##Tools & Techniques .1 Organization charts and position descriptions .2 Networking .3 Organizational theory .4 Expert judgment .5 Meetings --- ##Outputs .1 Human resource management plan --- #9.1 Plan Human Resource Management Human resource planning is used to determine and identify human resources with the necessary skills required for project success. The human resource management plan describes how the roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured within a project. It also contains the staffing management plan including timetables for staff acquisition and release, identification of training needs, team-building strategies, plans for recognition and rewards programs, compliance considerations, safety issues, and the impact of the staffing management plan on the organization. Effective human resource planning should consider and plan for the availability of or competition for scarce resources. Project roles can be designated for teams or team members. Those teams or team members can be from inside or outside the organization performing the project. Other projects may be competing for human resources with the same competencies or skill sets. Given these factors, project costs, schedules, risks, quality, and other project areas may be significantly affected. --- #9.1.1 Plan Human Resource Management: Inputs ##184.108.40.206 Project Management Plan Described in Section 220.127.116.11. The project management plan is used to develop the human resource management plan as described in Section 18.104.22.168. The information used for the development of the human resource management plan includes, but is not limited to: - The project life cycle and the processes that will be applied to each phase, - How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives, - A change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled, - A configuration management plan that documents how configuration management will be performed, - How integrity of the project baselines will be maintained, and - Needs and methods of communication among stakeholders. --- ##22.214.171.124 Activity Resource Requirements Described in Section 126.96.36.199. Human resource planning uses activity resource requirements to determine the human resource needs for the project. The preliminary requirements regarding the required project team members and their competencies are progressively elaborated as part of the Plan Human Resource Management process. --- ##188.8.131.52 Enterprise Environmental Factors Described in Section 2.1.5. The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Human Resource Management process include, but are not limited to: - Organizational culture and structure, - Existing human resources, - Geographical dispersion of team members, - Personnel administration policies, and - Marketplace conditions. ##184.108.40.206 Organizational Process Assets Described in Section 2.1.4. The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Human Resource Management process include, but are not limited to: - Organizational standard processes, policies, and role descriptions; - Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions; - Lessons learned on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects; and - Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organization. #9.1.2 Plan Human Resource Management: Tools and Techniques ##220.127.116.11 Organization Charts and Position Descriptions Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities. Most of the formats fall into one of three types (Figure 9-4): hierarchical, matrix, and text-oriented. Additionally, some project assignments are listed in subsidiary plans, such as the risk, quality, or communications management plans. Regardless of the method utilized, the objective is to ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities. For example, a hierarchical format may be used to represent high-level roles, while a text-based format may be better suited to document the detailed responsibilities. - Hierarchical-type charts. The traditional organization chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphical, top-down format. Work breakdown structures (WBS) designed to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages provide a way of showing high-level areas of responsibility. While the WBS shows a breakdown of project deliverables, the organizational breakdown structure (OBS) is arranged according to an organization’s existing departments, units, or teams with the project activities or work packages listed under each department. An operational department such as information technology or purchasing can see all of its project responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS. The resource breakdown structure (RBS) is a hierarchical list of resources related by category and resource type that is used to - Hierarchical-type charts. The traditional organization chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphical, top-down format. Work breakdown structures (WBS) designed to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages provide a way of showing high-level areas of responsibility. While the WBS shows a breakdown of project deliverables, the organizational breakdown structure (OBS) is arranged according to an organization’s existing departments, units, or teams with the project activities or work packages listed under each department. An operational department such as information technology or purchasing can see all of its project responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS. The resource breakdown structure (RBS) is a hierarchical list of resources related by category and resource type that is used to facilitate planning and controlling of project work. Each descending (lower) level represents an increasingly detailed description of the resource until small enough to be used in conjunction with the work breakdown structure (WBS) to allow the work to be planned, monitored and controlled. The resource breakdown structure is helpful in tracking project costs and can be aligned with the organization’s accounting system. It can contain resource categories other than human resources. - Matrix-based charts. A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM can define what a project team group or unit is responsible for within each component of the WBS, while lower-level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This also ensures that there is only one person accountable for any one task to avoid confusion of responsibility. One example of a RAM is a RACI (responsible, accountable, consult, and inform) chart, shown in Figure 9-5. The sample chart shows the work to be done in the left column as activities. The assigned resources can be shown as individuals or groups. The project manager can select other options such as “lead” and “resource” designations or others, as appropriate for the project. A RACI chart is a useful tool to use when the team consists of internal and external resources in order to ensure clear divisions of roles and expectations. - Text-oriented formats. Team member responsibilities that require detailed descriptions can be specified in text-oriented formats. Usually in outline form, the documents provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications. The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms. These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned. ##18.104.22.168 Networking Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment. It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options. Human resource management benefits from successful networking by improving knowledge of and access to human resource assets such as strong competencies, specialized experience, and external partnership opportunities. Examples of human resources networking activities include proactive correspondence, luncheon meetings, informal conversations including meetings and events, trade conferences, and symposia. Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project. It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends. ##22.214.171.124 Organizational Theory Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave. Effective use of common themes identified in organizational theory can shorten the amount of time, cost, and effort needed to create the Plan Human Resource Management process outputs and improve planning efficiency. It is important to recognize that different organizational structures have different individual response, individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics. Also, applicable organizational theories may recommend exercising a flexible leadership style that adapts to the changes in a team’s maturity level throughout the project life cycle. ##126.96.36.199 Expert Judgment When developing the human resource management plan, expert judgment is used to: - List the preliminary requirements for the required skills; - Assess the roles required for the project based on standardized role descriptions within the organization; - Determine the preliminary effort level and number of resources needed to meet project objectives; - Determine reporting relationships needed based on the organizational culture; - Provide guidelines on lead time required for staffing, based on lessons learned and market conditions; - Identify risks associated with staff acquisition, retention, and release plans; and - Identify and recommend programs for complying with applicable government and union contracts. ##188.8.131.52 Meetings When planning human resource management of the project, the project management team will hold planning meetings. These meetings leverage a combination of other tools and techniques to allow for all project management team members to reach consensus on the human resource management plan. #9.1.3 Plan Human Resource Management: Outputs ##184.108.40.206 Human Resource Management Plan The human resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, and eventually released. The human resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.The human resource management plan includes, but is not limited to, the following: - Roles and responsibilities. The following should be addressed when listing the roles and responsibilities needed to complete a project: ○ Role. The function assumed by or assigned to a person in the project. Examples of project roles are civil engineer, business analyst, and testing coordinator. Role clarity concerning authority, responsibilities, and boundaries should also be documented. ○ Authority. The right to apply project resources, make decisions, sign approvals, accept deliverables, and influence others to carry out the work of the project. Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the selection of a method for completing an activity, quality acceptance, and how to respond to project variances. Team members operate best when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities. ○ Responsibility. The assigned duties and work that a project team member is expected to perform in order to complete the project’s activities. ○ Competency. The skill and capacity required to complete assigned activities within the project constraints. If project team members do not possess required competencies, performance can be jeopardized. When such mismatches are identified, proactive responses such as training, hiring, schedule changes, or scope changes are initiated. - Project organization charts. A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships. It can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. For example, the project organization chart for a 3,000-person disaster response team will have greater detail than a project organization chart for an internal, twenty-person project. - Staffing management plan. The staffing management plan is a component of the human resource management plan that describes when and how project team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed. It describes how human resource requirements will be met. The staffing management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed, or broadly framed, depending upon the needs of the project. The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions. Information in the staffing management plan varies by application area and project size, but items to consider include: ○ Staff acquisition. A number of questions arise when planning the acquisition of project team members. For example, whether the human resources come from within the organization or from external, contracted sources; whether the team members need to work in a central location or may work from distant locations; costs associated with each level of expertise needed for the project; and level of assistance that the organization’s human resource department and functional managers are able to provide to the project management team. ○ Resource calendars. Calendars that identify the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. The staffing management plan describes necessary time frames for project team members, either individually or collectively, as well as when acquisition activities such as recruiting should start. One tool for charting human resources is a resource histogram, used by the project management team as a means of providing a visual representation or resources allocation to all interested parties. This chart illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire project team that will be needed each week or month over the course of the project. The chart can include a horizontal line that represents the maximum number of hours available from a particular resource. Bars that extend beyond the maximum available hours identify the need for a resource optimization strategy (Section 220.127.116.11), such as adding more resources or modifying the schedule. An example of a resource histogram is illustrated in Figure 9-6. ○ Staff release plan. Determining the method and timing of releasing team members benefits both the project and team members. When team members are released from a project, the costs associated with those resources are no longer charged to the project, thus reducing project costs. Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects are already planned. A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of a project. ○ Training needs. If it is expected that the team members to be assigned will not have the required competencies, a training plan can be developed as part of the project. The plan can also include ways to help team members obtain certifications that would support their ability to benefit the project. ○ Recognition and rewards. Clear criteria for rewards and a planned system for their use help promote and reinforce desired behaviors. To be effective, recognition and rewards should be based on activities and performance under a person’s control. For example, a team member who is to be rewarded for meeting cost objectives should have an appropriate level of control over decisions that affect expenses. Creating a plan with established times for distribution of rewards ensures that recognition takes place and is not forgotten. Recognition and rewards are part of the Develop Project Team process (Section 9.3). ○ Compliance. The staffing management plan can include strategies for complying with applicable government regulations, union contracts, and other established human resource policies. ○ Safety. Policies and procedures that protect team members from safety hazards can be included in the staffing management plan as well as in the risk register. #9.2 Acquire Project Team Acquire Project Team is the process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities. The key benefit of this process consists of outlining and guiding the team selection and responsibility assignment to obtain a successful team. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-7. Figure 9-8 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. #Inputs .1 Human resource management plan .2 Enterprise environmental factors .3 Organizational process assets #Tools & Techniques .1 Pre-assignment .2 Negotiation .3 Acquisition .4 Virtual teams .5 Multi-criteria decision analysis #Outputs .1 Project staff assignments .2 Resource calendars .3 Project management plan updates The project management team may or may not have direct control over team member selection because of collective bargaining agreements, use of subcontractor personnel, matrix project environment, internal or external reporting relationships, or other various reasons. It is important that the following factors are considered during the process of acquiring the project team: - The project manager or project management team should effectively negotiate and influence others who are in a position to provide the required human resources for the project. - Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction, quality, and risks. Insufficient human resources or capabilities decrease the probability of success and, in a worst case scenario, could result in project cancellation. - If the human resources are not available due to constraints, such as economic factors or previous assignments to other projects, the project manager or project team may be required to assign alternative resources, perhaps with lower competencies, provided there is no violation of legal, regulatory, mandatory, or other specific criteria. These factors should be considered and planned for in the planning stages of the project. The project manager or project management team will be required to reflect the impact of any unavailability of required human resources in the project schedule, project budget, project risks, project quality, training plans, and the other project management plans. #9.2.1 Acquire Project Team: Inputs ##18.104.22.168 Human Resource Management Plan Described in Section 22.214.171.124. The human resource management plan provides guidance on how project human resources should be identified, staffed, managed, and eventually released. It includes: - Roles and responsibilities defining the positions, skills, and competencies that the project demands; - Project organization charts indicating the number of people needed for the project; and - Staffing management plan delineating the time periods each project team member will be needed and other information important to engage the project team. ##126.96.36.199 Enterprise Environmental Factors Described in Section 2.1.5. The enterprise environmental factors that influence the Acquire Project Team process include, but are not limited to: - Existing information on human resources including availability, competency levels, prior experience, interest in working on the project and their cost rate; - Personnel administration policies such as those that affect outsourcing; - Organizational structure as described in Section 2.3.1; and - Colocation or multiple locations. ##188.8.131.52 Organizational Process Assets Described in Section 2.1.4. The organizational process assets that influence the Acquire Project Team process include, but are not limited to, organizational standard policies, processes, and procedures. #9.2.2 Acquire Project Team: Tools and Techniques ##184.108.40.206 Pre-assignment When project team members are selected in advance, they are considered pre-assigned. This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific people being identified as part of a competitive proposal, if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons, or if some staff assignments are defined within the project charter. ##220.127.116.11 Negotiation Staff assignments are negotiated on many projects. For example, the project management team may need to negotiate with: - Functional managers, to ensure that the project receives appropriately competent staff in the required time frame and that the project team members will be able, willing, and authorized to work on the project until their responsibilities are completed; - Other project management teams within the performing organization, to appropriately assign scarce or specialized human resources; and - External organizations, vendors, suppliers, contractors, etc., for appropriate, scarce, specialized, qualified, certified, or other such specified human resources. Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies, practices, processes, guidelines, legal, and other such criteria. The project management team’s ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating staff assignments, as do the politics of the organizations involved. For example, a functional manager will weigh the benefits and visibility of competing projects when determining where to assign exceptional performers requested by various project teams. ##18.104.22.168 Acquisition When the performing organization is unable to provide the staff needed to complete a project, the required services may be acquired from outside sources. This can involve hiring individual consultants or subcontracting work to another organization. ##22.214.171.124 Virtual Teams The use of virtual teams creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members. Virtual teams can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. The availability of communication technology such as e-mail, audio conferencing, social media, web-based meetings and video conferencing has made virtual teams feasible. The virtual team model makes it possible to: - Form teams of people from the same organization who live in widespread geographic areas; - Add special expertise to a project team even though the expert is not in the same geographic area; - Incorporate employees who work from home offices; - Form teams of people who work different shifts, hours, or days; - Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities; and - Move forward with projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses. There are some disadvantages related to virtual teams, such as possibility for misunderstandings, feeling of isolation, difficulties in sharing knowledge and experience between team members, and cost of appropriate technology. Communication planning becomes increasingly important in a virtual team environment. Additional time may be needed to set clear expectations, facilitate communications, develop protocols for resolving conflict, include people in decision making, understand cultural differences, and share credit in successes. ##126.96.36.199 Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multi-criteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team. Some examples of selection criteria that can be used to score team members are shown as follows: - Availability. Identify whether the team member is available to work on the project within the time period needed. If there are there any concerns for availability during the project timeline. - Cost. Verify if the cost of adding the team member is within the prescribed budget. - Experience. Verify that the team member has the relevant experience that will contribute to the project success. - Ability. Verify that the team member has the competencies needed by the project. - Knowledge. Consider if the team member has relevant knowledge of the customer, similar implemented projects, and nuances of the project environment. - Skills. Determine whether the member has the relevant skills to use a project tool, implementation, or training. - Attitude. Determine whether the member has the ability to work with others as a cohesive team. - International factors. Consider team member location, time zone and communication capabilities. #9.2.3 Acquire Project Team: Outputs ##188.8.131.52 Project Staff Assignments The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules. ##184.108.40.206 Resource Calendars Resource calendars document the time periods that each project team member is available to work on the project. Creating a reliable schedule (Section 220.127.116.11) depends on having a good understanding of each person’s availability and schedule constraints, including time zones, work hours, vacation time, local holidays, and commitments to other projects. ##18.104.22.168 Project Management Plan Updates Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include, but are not limited to, the human resource management plan. For example, the person assigned to a predefined role may not fulfill all staffing requirements outlined in the human resource management plan. When gaps occur, the project management plan needs to be updated to change the team structure, roles, or responsibilities. --- #9.3 Develop Project Team Develop Project Team is the process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance. The key benefit of this process is that it results in improved teamwork, enhanced people skills and competencies, motivated employees, reduced staff turnover rates, and improved overall project performance. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-9. --- ##Inputs * 1 Human resource management plan * 2 Project staff assignments * 3 Resource calendars ??? This is a review slide. Don't teach from here. --- ##Tools & Techniques * 1 Interpersonal skills * 2 Training * 3 Team-building activities * 4 Ground rules * 5 Colocation * 6 Recognition and rewards * 7 Personnel assessment tools ??? This is a review slide. Don't teach from here. --- ##Outputs * 1 Team performance assessments * 2 Enterprise environmental factors updates --- #Develop Project Teams Overview ??? Project managers should acquire skills to identify, build, maintain, motivate, lead, and inspire project teams to achieve high team performance and to meet the project’s objectives. Teamwork is a critical factor for project success, and developing effective project teams is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager. Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork. Project managers should continually motivate their team by providing challenges and opportunities, by providing timely feedback and support as needed, and by recognizing and rewarding good performance. High team performance can be achieved by using open and effective communication, creating team building opportunities, developing trust among team members, managing conflicts in a constructive manner, and encouraging collaborative problem solving and decision making. The project manager should request management support and/or influence the appropriate stakeholders to acquire the resources needed to develop effective project teams.Project managers operate in a global environment and work on projects characterized by cultural diversity. Team members often have diverse industry experience, know multiple languages, and sometimes operate in the “team language” that may be a different language or norm than their native one. The project management team should capitalize on cultural differences, focus on developing and sustaining the project team throughout the project life cycle, and promote working together interdependently in a climate of mutual trust. The project manager should request management support and/or influence the appropriate stakeholders to acquire the resources needed to develop effective project teams.Project managers operate in a global environment and work on projects characterized by cultural diversity. Team members often have diverse industry experience, know multiple languages, and sometimes operate in the “team language” that may be a different language or norm than their native one. The project management team should capitalize on cultural differences, focus on developing and sustaining the project team throughout the project life cycle, and promote working together interdependently in a climate of mutual trust. Developing the project team improves the people skills, technical competencies, and overall team environment and project performance. It requires clear, timely, effective, and efficient communication between team members throughout the life of the project. Objectives of developing a project team include, but are not limited to: - Improving knowledge and skills of team members to increase their ability to complete project deliverables, while lowering costs, reducing schedules, and improving quality; - Improving feelings of trust and agreement among team members to raise morale, lower conflict, and increase team work; and - Creating a dynamic, cohesive, and collaborative team culture to (1) improve individual and team productivity, team spirit, and cooperation and (2) allow cross training and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise. --- #9.3.1 Develop Project Team: Inputs ##22.214.171.124 Human Resource Management Plan Described in Section 126.96.36.199. The human resource management plan provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released. It identifies training strategies and plans for developing the project team. Items such as rewards, feedback, additional training, and disciplinary actions can be added to the plan as a result of ongoing team performance assessments and other forms of project team management. --- ##188.8.131.52 Project Staff Assignments Described in Section 184.108.40.206. Team development starts with a list of the project team members. Project staff assignment documents identify the people who are on the team. --- ##220.127.116.11 Resource Calendars Described in Section 18.104.22.168. Resource calendars identify times when the project team members can participate in team development activities. --- #9.3.2 Develop Project Team: Tools and Techniques ##22.214.171.124 Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills, sometimes known as “soft skills,” are behavioral competencies that include proficiencies such as communication skills, emotional intelligence, conflict resolution, negotiation, influence, team building, and group facilitation. These soft skills are valuable assets when developing the project team. For example, the project management team can use emotional intelligence to reduce tension and increase cooperation by identifying, assessing, and controlling the sentiments of project team members, anticipating their actions, acknowledging their concerns, and following up on their issues. --- ##126.96.36.199 Training Training includes all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members. Training can be formal or informal. Examples of training methods include classroom, online, computer-based, on-the-job training from another project team member, mentoring, and coaching. If project team members lack the necessary management or technical skills, such skills can be developed as part of the project work. Scheduled training takes place as stated in the human resource management plan. Unplanned training takes place as a result of observation, conversation, and project performance appraisals conducted during the controlling process of managing the project team. Training costs could be included in the project budget, or supported by performing organization if the added skills may be useful for future projects. It could be performed by in-house or external trainers. --- ##188.8.131.52 Team-Building Activities ??? Team-building activities can vary from a 5-minute agenda item in a status review meeting to an off-site, professionally facilitated experience designed to improve interpersonal relationships. The objective of team-building activities is to help individual team members work together effectively. Team-building strategies are particularly valuable when team members operate from remote locations without the benefit of face-to-face contact. Informal communication and activities can help in building trust and establishing good working relationships. As an ongoing process, team building is crucial to project success. While team building is essential during the initial stages of a project, it is a never-ending process. Changes in a project environment are inevitable, and to manage them effectively, a continued or a renewed team-building effort should be applied. The project manager should continually monitor team functionality and performance to determine if any actions are needed to prevent or correct various team problems. One of the models used to describe team development is the Tuckman ladder (Tuckman, 1965; Tuckman & Jensen, 1977), which includes five stages of development that teams may go through. Although it’s common for these stages to occur in order, it’s not uncommon for a team to get stuck in a particular stage or slip to an earlier stage. Projects with team members who worked together in the past may skip a stage. --- #Phases of the Tuckman Ladder * Forming. This phase is where the team meets and learns about the project and their formal roles and responsibilities. Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase. * Storming. During this phase, the team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach. If team members are not collaborative and open to differing ideas and perspectives, the environment can become counterproductive. * Norming. In the norming phase, team members begin to work together and adjust their work habits and behaviors to support the team. The team learns to trust each other. * Performing. Teams that reach the performing stage function as a well-organized unit. They are interdependent and work through issues smoothly and effectively. * Adjourning. In the adjourning phase, the team completes the work and moves on from the project. ??? This typically occurs when staff is released from the project as deliverables are completed or as part of carrying out the Close Project or Phase process (Section 4.6). The duration of a particular stage depends upon team dynamics, team size, and team leadership. Project managers should have a good understanding of team dynamics in order to move their team members through all stages in an effective manner. --- ##184.108.40.206 Ground Rules Ground rules establish clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members. Early commitment to clear guidelines decreases misunderstandings and increases productivity. Discussing ground rules in areas such as code of conduct, communication, working together, or meeting etiquette allows team members to discover values that are important to one another. All project team members share responsibility for enforcing the rules once they are established. --- ##220.127.116.11 Colocation Colocation, also referred to as “tight matrix,” involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Colocation can be temporary, such as at strategically important times during the project, or for the entire project. Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room (sometimes called “war room”), places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community. While colocation is considered a good strategy, the use of virtual teams can bring benefits such as the use of more skilled resources, reduced costs, less travel, and relocation expenses and the proximity of team members to suppliers, customers, or other key stakeholders. --- ##18.104.22.168 Recognition and Rewards Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior. The original plans concerning ways in which to reward people are developed during the Plan Human Resource Management process. It is important to recognize that a particular reward given to any individual will be effective only if it satisfies a need which is valued by that individual. Award decisions are made, formally or informally, during the process of managing the project team through project performance appraisals (Section 22.214.171.124). Cultural differences should be considered when determining recognition and rewards. People are motivated if they feel they are valued in the organization and this value is demonstrated by the rewards given to them. Generally, money is viewed as a tangible aspect of any reward system, but intangible rewards could be equally or even more effective. Most project team members are motivated by an opportunity to grow, accomplish, and apply their professional skills to meet new challenges. A good strategy for project managers is to give the team recognition throughout the life cycle of the project rather than waiting until the project is completed. --- ##126.96.36.199 Personnel Assessment Tools Personnel assessment tools give the project manager and the project team insight into areas of strength and weakness. These tools help project managers assess the team preferences, aspirations, how they process and organize information, how they tend to make decisions, and how they prefer to interact with people. Various tools are available such as attitudinal surveys, specific assessments, structured interviews, ability tests, and focus groups. These tools can provide improved understanding, trust, commitment, and communications among team members and facilitate more productive teams throughout the project. --- ##9.3.3 Develop Project Team: Outputs ###188.8.131.52 Team Performance Assessments As project team development efforts such as training, team building, and colocation are implemented, the project management team makes formal or informal assessments of the project team’s effectiveness. Effective team development strategies and activities are expected to increase the team’s performance, which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives. Team performance assessment criteria should be determined by all appropriate parties and incorporated in the Develop Project Team inputs. --- The performance of a successful team is measured in terms of technical success according to agreed-upon project objectives (including quality levels), performance on project schedule (finished on time), and performance on budget (finished within financial constraints). High-performance teams are characterized by these task-oriented and results-oriented outcomes. The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators such as: * Improvements in skills that allow individuals to perform assignments more effectively, * Improvements in competencies that help the team perform better as a team, * Reduced staff turnover rate, and * Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to improve the overall project performance. As a result of conducting an evaluation of the team’s overall performance, the project management team can identify the specific training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or changes required to improve the team’s performance. This should also include identification of the appropriate or required resources necessary to achieve and implement the improvements identified in the assessment. These resources and recommendations for team improvement should be well documented and forwarded to the relevant parties. --- ##184.108.40.206 Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates The enterprise environmental factors that may be updated as a result of the Develop Project Team process include, but are not limited to, personnel administration, employee training records, and skill assessments. --- #9.4 Manage Project Team Manage Project Team is the process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance. The key benefit of this process is that it influences team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-11. --- #Inputs .1 Human resource management plan .2 Project staff assignments .3 Team performance assessments .4 Issue log .5 Work performance reports .6 Organizational process assets #Tools & Techniques .1 Observation and conversation .2 Project performance appraisals .3 Conflict management .4 Interpersonal skills #Outputs .1 Change requests .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents updates .4 Enterprise environmental factors updates .5 Organizational process assets updates As a result of managing the project team, change requests are submitted, the human resource management plan is updated, issues are resolved, input is provided for performance appraisals, and lessons learned are added to the organization’s database. Managing the project team requires a variety of management skills for fostering teamwork and integrating the efforts of team members to create high-performance teams. Team management involves a combination of skills with special emphasis on communication, conflict management, negotiation, and leadership. Project managers should provide challenging assignments to team members and provide recognition for high performance. #9.4.1 Manage Project Team: Inputs ##220.127.116.11 Human Resource Management Plan Described in Section 18.104.22.168. The human resource management plan provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released. It includes, but is not limited to: - Roles and responsibilities, - Project organization, and - Staffing management plan. ##22.214.171.124 Project Staff Assignments Described in Section 126.96.36.199. Project staff assignments provide documentation, which includes the list of project team members. ##188.8.131.52 Team Performance Assessments Described in Section 184.108.40.206. The project management team makes ongoing formal or informal assessments of the project team’s performance. By continually assessing the project team’s performance, actions can be taken to resolve issues, modify communication, address conflict, and improve team interaction. ##220.127.116.11 Issue Log Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date. ##18.104.22.168 Work Performance Reports Described in Section 22.214.171.124. Work performance reports provide documentation about the current project status compared to project forecasts. Performance areas that can help with project team management include results from schedule control, cost control, quality control, and scope validation. The information from performance reports and related forecasts assists in determining future human resource requirements, recognition and rewards, and updates to the staffing management plan. ##126.96.36.199 Organizational Process Assets Described in Section 2.1.4. The organizational process assets that can influence the Manage Project Team process include, but are not limited to: - Certificates of appreciation, - Newsletters, - Websites, - Bonus structures, - Corporate apparel, and - Other organizational perquisites. #9.4.2 Manage Project Team: Tools and Techniques ##188.8.131.52 Observation and Conversation Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues. ##184.108.40.206 Project Performance Appraisals Objectives for conducting performance appraisals during the course of a project can include clarification of roles and responsibilities, constructive feedback to team members, discovery of unknown or unresolved issues, development of individual training plans, and the establishment of specific goals for future time periods. The need for formal or informal project performance appraisals depends on the length of the project, complexity of the project, organizational policy, labor contract requirements, and the amount and quality of regular communication. ##220.127.116.11 Conflict Management Conflict is inevitable in a project environment. Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions. The success of project managers in managing their project teams often depends a great deal on their ability to resolve conflict. Different project managers may utilize different conflict resolution methods. Factors that influence conflict resolution methods include: - Relative importance and intensity of the conflict, - Time pressure for resolving the conflict, - Position taken by persons involved, and - Motivation to resolve conflict on a long-term or a short-term basis. There are five general techniques for resolving conflict. As each one has its place and use, these are not given in any particular order: - Withdraw/Avoid. Retreating from an actual or potential conflict situation; postponing the issue to be better prepared or to be resolved by others. - Smooth/Accommodate. Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas of difference; conceding one’s position to the needs of others to maintain harmony and relationships. - Compromise/Reconcile. Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict. - Force/Direct. Pushing one’s viewpoint at the expense of others; offering only win-lose solutions, usually enforced through a power position to resolve an emergency. - Collaborate/Problem Solve. Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives; requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment. ##18.104.22.168 Interpersonal Skills Project managers use a combination of technical, personal, and conceptual skills to analyze situations and interact appropriately with team members. Using appropriate interpersonal skills allows project managers to capitalize on the strengths of all team members. Examples of interpersonal skills that a project manager uses most often include: - Leadership. Successful projects require strong leadership skills. Leadership is important through all phases of the project life cycle. There are multiple leadership theories defining leadership styles that should be used as needed for each situation or team. It is especially important to communicate the vision and inspire the project team to achieve high performance. - Influencing. Because project managers often have little or no direct authority over team members in a matrix environment, their ability to influence stakeholders on a timely basis is critical to project success. Key influencing skills include: ○ Ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions; ○ High levels of active and effective listening skills; ○ Awareness of, and consideration for, the various perspectives in any situation; and ○ Gathering relevant and critical information to address important issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust. - Effective decision making. This involves the ability to negotiate and influence the organization and the project management team. Some guidelines for decision making include: ○ Focus on goals to be served, ○ Follow a decision-making process, ○ Study the environmental factors, ○ Analyze available information, ○ Develop personal qualities of the team members, ○ Stimulate team creativity, and ○ Manage risk. #9.4.3 Manage Project Team: Outputs ##22.214.171.124 Change Requests Staffing changes, whether by choice or by uncontrollable events, can affect the rest of the project management plan. When staffing issues disrupt the project team from adhering to the project management plan such as causing the schedule to be extended or the budget to be exceeded, a change request can be processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Staffing changes may include moving people to different assignments, outsourcing some of the work, and replacing team members who leave. Preventive actions are those actions that are developed to reduce the probability and/or impact of problems before they occur. These actions may include cross training to reduce problems during project team member absences and additional role clarification to ensure all responsibilities are fulfilled. ##126.96.36.199 Project Management Plan Updates Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include, but are not limited to, the human resource management plan. ##188.8.131.52 Project Documents Updates Project documents that may indirectly be updated include, but are not limited to: - Issue log, - Roles description, and - Project staff assignments. ##184.108.40.206 Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates Enterprise environmental factors that may require updates as a result of the Manage Project Team process include, but are not limited to: - Input to organizational performance appraisals, and - Personnel skill updates. ##220.127.116.11 Organizational Process Assets Updates Organizational process assets that may require updates as a result of the Manage Project Team process include, but are not limited to: - Historical information and lessons learned documentation, - Templates, and - Organizational standard processes.